Феноменология Homo Economicus

Журнал «KANT Social Sciences & Humanities Series» №4(8) 2021 [стр. 16-31]

DOI: 10.24923/2305-8757.2021-8.2

Авторы: Галит Айлон, доцент, экономический и организационный социолог, факультет социологии и антропологии, Университет Бар-Илан, Рамат-Ган, Израиль, Перевод c английского кандидата полит. н. М.А. Григорьевой

Ключевые слова: homo economicus; феноменология; Альфред Шюц; экономическое взаимодействие; рыночное общество.

Много было написано о фиктивной природе атомистической модели homo economicus. Тем не менее, эта экономическая модель личных интересов и эгоизма стала общепринятой в рыночных обществах. В этой статье предлагается феноменологическое объяснение здравого смысла модели. Основываясь на работах Альфреда Шюца, я утверждаю, что опора на homo economicus как интерпретирующую схему для понимания поведения экономических других субъектов приводит к изменению значения знаков и сомнений, которые бросают вызов предположениям модели. Более того, он ориентирует социальные действия таким образом, чтобы интерпретационные несоответствия модели не выходили на передний план. Следовательно, интерпретирующая опора на homo economicus создает "феноменологический тупик". Альтернативные источники информации и альтернативные схемы интерпретации могут обойти эту ловушку экономического взаимодействия, но в этой статье далее объясняется, почему нормы и культурные горизонты рыночного общества ограничивают доступность этих альтернатив, тем самым, по сути, осаждая заблокированный опыт.

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The Phenomenology of Homo Economicus

Authors: Ailon Galit, Associate Professor, economic and organizational sociologist, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel

Keywords: homo economicus; phenomenology; Alfred Schutz; economic interaction; market society

Much has been written about the fictitious nature of the atomistic model of homo economicus. Nevertheless, this economic model of self-interest and egoism has become conventional wisdom in market societies. This article offers a phenomenological explanation for the model's commonsensical grip. Building on the work of Alfred Schutz, I argue that a reliance on homo economicus as an interpretive scheme for making sense of the behavior of economic Others has the effect of reversing the meaning of signs and doubts that challenge the model's assumptions. Moreover, it orients social action in ways that prevent the model's interpretive incongruences from rising to the reflective fore. Consequently, an interpretive reliance on homo economicus creates a "phenomenological gridlock." Alternative sources of information and alternative interpretive schemes can bypass this entrapment of the economic interaction, but this article further explains why the norms and cultural horizons of market society limit the accessibility of these alternatives, thus, in effect, sedimenting gridlocked experiences.
Ailon Galit. The Phenome-nology of Homo Economicus // Sociological Theory. 2020, Vol. 38(1) 36-50.
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